Bahadur Shah Zafar Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last emperor of the Mughal Empire to rule India for four decades. His reign was from 1837-57. Bahadur Shah Zafar was a poet, music composer and Khushnavis and was more of a beauty figure than a political leader. He led the Indian soldiers in the first Indian freedom struggle of 1857. After the defeat in the war, the British sent him to Burma (now Myanmar) where he died.
History of the last Mughal Bahadur Shah Zafar
Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar succeeded his father Akbar II on 28 September 1837 after his death. In fact, he was not his father’s main choice from the standpoint of being successful. Akbar II was planning to make his wife Mumtaz Begum’s son Mirza Jahangir his successor. Due to inexperienced zafar, the British had no problem when they became emperors.
After becoming emperor he also appointed his son Mirza Mughal as commander in chief of his forces. Mirza the Mughal was very inexperienced, and he could not pledge the army. There was chaos in the administration of the city and anarchy spread in the army, taking advantage of which the British intensified the attack on Delhi.
However, from the point of view of an emperor, he treated people of all religions of his subjects well. He ensured that major Hindu festivals such as Holi and Diwali should be held in the Rajya Sabha. He was very sensitive to the religious sentiments of the Hindus. They use “Zafar” in their name which means winner. He has written many Urdu poems and Ghazals. He was a nominal ruler only, like a Mughal ruler, his name was written only in history and he only had the right to rule Delhi (Shahjahanabad).
Early Life – Early Life
Bahadur Shah Zafar was born on 24 October 1775 AD in Delhi. Bahadur Shah was the second son of Akbar Shah II and Lalbai. His mother Lalbai was from a Hindu family. He received poetry education from his two teachers, Ibrahim Zouk and Asad Ullah Khan Ghalib. Being a prince, he was trained in the arts of cavalry, fencing, bow and arrow shooting, and fire-arms.
In 1857, when the spark of India’s independence erupted, all the rebel soldiers and kings and emperors considered him Emperor of India and led the British to the bricks under his leadership. Bahadur Shah Zafar also got angry after seeing the rebellion of the Indian soldiers against the British and called for the British to be driven out of India.
Indians defeated the British hard in Delhi and other parts of the country. For most of his reign he did not hold real power and depended on the British. At the time of the freedom struggle in 1857, Bahadur Shah was 82 years old, and had lost the ability to take decisions himself. In September 1857, the British again occupied Delhi and Bahadur Shah II was arrested and prosecuted and exiled to Rangoon.
Zafar, called the last emperor of the Mughal period in India, was made the emperor of Delhi during the First War of Independence. One of the few orders he gave as soon as he became emperor was to ban cow slaughter. This order shows how big he was for Hindu-Muslim unity.
At the time of 1857, Bahadur Shah Zafar was such a great personality, who was respected not only as a king but also as a secular person. That is why it was very natural that the soldiers who reached Delhi after revolting from Meerut made Bahadur Shah Zafar their king first.
He had four wives (Begum), Begum Ashraf Mahal, Begum Akhtar Mahal, Begum Zeenat Mahal and Begum Taj Mahal. Zeenat Begum was her favorite among all these Begmo. He had many sons and daughters.
He died on November 7, 1862 at 5 am, dreaming of driving the British out of the country. Bahadur Shah Zafar died at the age of 86 in Rangoon (present Yangon), Burma (present-day Myanmar). He was buried near the Shvedagon Pagoda in Rangoon. His burial site is now known as Bahadur Shah Zafar Dargah.
Davis, the British officer who was overseeing Zafar’s funeral at the time, also wrote that some 100 people were present when Zafar was buried. 132 years after Zafar’s death, an underground grave was unearthed in 1991 during an excavation to lay the foundation stone of a memorial hall. At a depth of 3.5 feet, the emblem and remains of Emperor Zafar were found, which, after investigation, confirmed that it was from Zafar. After this, his dargah was built in 1994 after 132 years.
How much respect people had for him can be gauged from the fact that in many places in India, roads have been named after him, while in Lahore city of Pakistan, a road was named after him. is. Victoria Park in Old Dhaka city of Bangladesh has been renamed Bahadur Shah Zafar Park. ” On the day Bahadur Shah Zafar died, his two sons and grandchildren were also arrested and shot. In this way, the Mughal dynasty founded by Emperor Babur in India came to an end.
Zafar Mahal – Jafar Mahal
Zafar Mahal is the last Mughal building built by Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last ruler of the Mughals. Zafar Mahal is established in Delhi, India. The entrance to the Zafar Mahal was constructed in the middle of the 19th century by Bahadur Shah Zafar, Akbar II. Zafar Mahal is built in Mehrauli, Delhi. Mehrauli is a delightful place where people come for hunting as well as for picnics. In the already famous Mehrauli, Zafar further enhanced its beauty by building the Zafar Mahal and the Dargah. The dome near the entrance was built around the 15th century and the rest of the palace is built according to Western art.
Famous Poets –
Bahadur Shah Zafar was not only a patriotic Mughal emperor but also a famous poet of Urdu. He wrote a number of famous Urdu poems, many of which were lost or destroyed during the upheaval that broke out against the British. The lines written by him in Urdu are also very famous.
He was a great admirer of the eminent and famous Urdu poets of his time such as Mirza Ghalib, Zauq, Momin and Dag. Most of his Urdu ghazals were lost during the war of 1857. Of those who survived, they were compiled and named as Kulliyat-i-Zafar.
His Urdu poems continued to flourish in Rangoon outside India. There, he cared for India all the time. His last wish was that he take the last breath of his life in India and be buried there, but that could not happen.
A poem of Zafar – Bahadur Shah Zafar Poem
I do not think my desolate love
Who is made in Alam-e-Naapidar.
Bulbul got from Bagban, not from Syed
The fate was imprisoned in Fas-e-Bahar.
Tell me to settle down with these haters,
Where is there such a place in Dil-e-Daagdar.
Shadman is a bulbul sitting on a branch,
Thorns have been laid in Dil-e-Lal-e-Zar.
Age-a-drawer brought four days of demand,
Two were cut in the beginning, two were waiting.
Days are over by evening,
The feet of the spreaders will sleep in Kunj-e-Mazar.
How much is bad luck for ‘Zafar’
Two gaz land is also not found in Ku-e-Yaar