Table of Contents

( Isaac Newton Biography ) Isaac Newton was a physicist and mathematician famous for his laws of physics. He was a major figure in the scientific revolution of the 17th century.

Isaac Newton was a physicist and mathematician who developed the principles of modern physics, including the laws of motion, and is credited as one of the great minds of the scientific revolution of the 17th century.

In 1687, he published his most acclaimed work, the Philosophy Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), called the single most influential book on physics. In 1705, he was knighted by Queen Anne of England, making him Sir Isaac Newton.

**early life | Isaac Newton Biography**

Newton was born on 4 January 1643 in Woolstorp, Lincolnshire, England. Newton’s date of birth is sometimes displayed as December 25, 1642, using the “old” Julian calendar.

Newton was the only son of a prosperous local farmer, also named Isaac, who died three months before he was born. Small and frail, a premature baby born, Newton was not expected to survive.

When he was 3 years old, his mother, Hannah Iskaw Newton, remarried and moved to live with him, a well-to-do minister, Barnabas Smith, leaving young Newton to her nanny.

The experience left an indelible impression on Newton, later revealing himself as a feeling of insecurity. He looked anxiously at his published work, defending his merits with worrying behavior.

At the age of 12, Newton was reunited with her mother after her second husband died. She brought her three young children from her second marriage.

**Isaac Newton’s education**

Newton was enrolled at King’s School in Grantham, a town in Lincolnshire, where he met with a local preacher and introduced him to the fascinating world of chemistry.

His mother expelled him from school at the age of 12. His plan was to make him a farmer and cultivate the farm. Newton failed miserably as he found farming monotonous. Newton was soon sent back to King’s School to finish his basic education.

Perhaps realizing the young man’s innate intellectual abilities, his uncle, a graduate of Trinity College at the University of Cambridge, persuaded Newton’s mother to admit him to the university. Newton enrolled in a program similar to a work-study in 1661, and later waited at the tables and looked after the rooms of the wealthy students.

**scientific revolution**

When Newton arrived in Cambridge, the scientific revolution of the 17th century was already fully in force. A subsidiary view of the universe — classified by astronomers Nicholas Copernicus and Johannes Kepler, and later refined by Galileo — was well known in most European academic circles. The philosopher René Descartes began to formulate a new concept of nature as a complex, impersonal and inert machine. Nevertheless, like most universities in Europe, Cambridge was implicated in Aristotelian philosophy and had to deal with nature qualitatively rather than as quantitative words, resting on a landscape of nature.

During his first three years at Cambridge, Newton was taught standard courses but fascinated with more advanced sciences. All his free time was spent reading with modern philosophers. The result was a less-than-stellar performance, but one that makes sense, given its dual course of study. It was during this time that Newton put together a second set of notes, entitled “Quastness’s Quadam Philosophy”. “Quastians” suggests that Newton had discovered the new concept of nature that provided the framework for the scientific revolution. Although Newton graduated without honors or distinction, his efforts earned him the title of scholar and four years of financial support for future education.

In 1665, the bubonic plague that devastated Europe arrived in Cambridge, causing the university to close. After a two-year hiatus, Newton returned to Cambridge in 1667 and was elected a minor fellow at Trinity College, as he was still not considered a standout scholar. In the following years, his fortunes improved. Newton received his art degree in 1669, before he was 27 years old. During this time, he came across ways to deal with the Infinite series in Nicholas Mercator’s published book.

Newton quickly wrote a treatise entitled De Analysis, exposing its broader results. He shared it with friend and mentor Isaac Barrow, but did not include his name as a writer. In June 1669, Barrow shared an unacceptable manuscript with the British mathematician John Collins. In August 1669, Barrow identified Collins as “Mr. Newton… very young… but his writer with extraordinary talent and proficiency in these things.” Newton’s work was first brought to the attention of the mathematics community. Shortly afterwards, Barrow resigned his Lucasian Professorship at Cambridge and Newton took the chair.

**Discovering isaac newton**

Newton discovered in optics, motion and mathematics. Newton stated that white light was a combination of all colors of the spectrum, and that light was made up of particles.

His important book on physics, Principia, contains information about almost all essential concepts of physics except energy, eventually helping him to explain the laws of motion and the theory of gravity. Along with the mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, Newton is credited with developing the essential theories of calculus.

**Invention**

Newton’s first major public scientific achievement was the creation and construction of a reflecting telescope in 1668. As a professor at Cambridge, Newton was required to give an annual course of lectures and chose optics as his initial subject. He used his telescope to study optics and help prove his theory of light and color.

The Royal Society asked for the display of its reflective telescope in 1671, and the organization’s interest encouraged Newton to publish his notes on light, optics, and color in 1672. These notes were later published as part of Newton’s optics: or, a treatise. Reflection, refraction, colors and shades of light.

Between 1665 and 1667, Newton returned home from Trinity College to pursue his private studies, as the school was closed due to the Great Plague. Legend has it that at this time, Newton experienced his famous inspiration of gravity with a falling apple. According to this common myth, Newton was sitting under an apple tree when a fruit fell and hit him on the head, prompting him to suddenly come up with the theory of gravity.

While there is no evidence that the apple actually hit Newton’s head, he saw an apple falling from a tree, leaving him wondering why it fell straight down and not at an angle. As a result, he began exploring the principles of motion and gravity.

It was during this 18-month hiatus as a student that Newton envisioned many of his key insights – including the method of the infinitissimal calculus, the foundation for his theory of light and color, and the laws of planetary motion. – which eventually proceeded. Publication of his physics book Princia and his theory of gravity.

**‘Principia’ and Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion**

In 1687, after 18 months of intensive and effectively nonstop work, Newton published the Philosophies Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as Principia.

The Principia is said to be the most influential book on physics and possibly all sciences. Its publication immediately brought Newton to international fame.

**Priscia provides precise quantitative descriptions of bodies in motion, with three basic but important laws of motion:**

**First rule**

A stationary body will remain stable until an external force is applied to it.

**Second rule**

The force is equal to the acceleration of the mass, and the change in speed (i.e., the change in speed) is proportional to the applied force.

**Third rule**

For each action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

**Newton and the theory of gravity**

Newton’s three basic laws of motion, mentioned in the Principia, helped him arrive at the principle of gravity. Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that two objects attract each other at the force of gravitational attraction that is proportional to their mass and is proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

These laws helped explain not only the orbits of elliptical planets, but also almost every other motion in the universe: how the planets are orbited by the gravitational pull of the Sun; How the moon revolves around the earth and Jupiter’s moons revolve around it; And how comets spin in elliptical orbits around the Sun.

They also allowed him to calculate the mass of each planet, the leveling of the Earth at the poles and the bulge at the equator, and how the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon created the Earth’s tides. In Newton’s account, gravity kept the universe balanced, worked it out, and brought heaven and earth together in a great equation.