Satyendra Nath Bose Biography
Birth: 1 January 1894, Kolkata
Death: 4 February 1974
Achievements: "Bose-Einstein Principle", named after him a subatomic particle Boson, awarded "Padma Bhushan"
Satyendra Nath Bose was an outstanding Indian physicist. He is known for his significant contributions to quantum physics. His research in quantum physics laid the foundations of the theory of “Bose-Einstein Statistics” and “Bose-Einstein Condensate”. There are two types of molecules considered in physics – bosons and fermions. ‘Boson’, the name of the great Indian scientist Satyendranath Bose has been given to keep it indelible in physics because this great Indian scientist gave a new direction to modern physics i.e. quantum physics. His works were appreciated by the great scientist Einstein and together with him proposed many theories. His research in quantum physics gave the subject a new direction and many scientists who made new discoveries based on his discovery went on to win the Nobel Prize.
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Satyendra Nath Bose Biography early life
Satyendra Nath Bose was born on 1 January 1894 in Kolkata. His father Surendra Nath Bose was working in the engineering department of East India Railway. Satyendra was the eldest of his seven brothers and sisters. He had his early education in a normal school near his home. He then enrolled in the New Indian School and then the Hindu School. After completing his schooling, he enrolled in the famous Presidency College, Kolkata. One interesting thing about him is that he continued to get the highest marks in all his exams and he continued to get first place. Seeing his talent, people often said that he would go ahead and become a great mathematician or scientist.
Satyendra Nath Bose Biography Career
He did M.Sc. in the year 1915. Passed (Mathematics) examination first class. The principal of the college, Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, was well aware of his talent, so he appointed Satyendra Nath to the post of Professor of Physics. He served in this post from 1916 to 1921. He joined the Physics Department at the newly established Dhaka University in 1921 as a reader. After joining the post of lecturer at Dhaka University, he did important work in the field of physics and mathematics. This was the time of new discoveries in physics. Quantum theory was presented by German physicist Max Planck. It was in Germany itself that Albert Einstein proposed the “theory of relativity”. Satyendranath Bose was studying and researching all these discoveries.
Satyendranath wrote a paper named “Planck’s Law and Light Quantum” and sent it for publication in the British Journal, which was rejected by the editorial there. After this he sent it directly to the great scientist Einstein. Einstein understood its importance and said that this paper is an important contribution in the field of mathematics and translated it into German language and published it in a journal called ‘Jeet für Physik’. After this, both great scientists worked together on many theories.
Meanwhile, Bose sent another paper for publication in ‘Physics Journal’. In this paper, errors were indicated when applying ‘Maxwell-Boltzmann rule’ to photon-like particles. The journal did not publish this paper, and Bose once again sent this paper to Einstein. Einstein jointly published the paper in ‘Jeet für Physik’ while doing some further research on it. This paper laid the foundation for a new branch in quantum physics called ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics’. By this, the properties of all types of boson particles can be detected.
Bose then toured Europe from 1924 to 1926 where he worked with scientists such as Marie Curie, Pauli, Heisenberg and Planck. He also met Einstein in Berlin. After nearly two years in Europe, Bose returned to Dhaka in 1926 and applied for the post of Professor at Dhaka University but due to not having a Ph.D. he was unable to fulfill the qualification for this post. . Then on the suggestion of friends, he took a citation from Einstein on the basis of which he got this job. Bose lived in Dhaka from 1926 to 1945. Returning to Kolkata in 1945, he was appointed as Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta and then retired to Calcutta University in 1956 and moved to Santiniketan. He could not stay longer at Shantiniketan and in 1958 he had to return to Calcutta. In the same year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and appointed a National Professor. Considering his outstanding achievement, the Government of India honored him with ‘Padma Bhushan’.
He died on 4 February 1974 in Kolkata. At that time, he was 80 years old.
Time line (life event sequence)
1894: Born in Kolkata
1915: M.Sc. in Mathematics Passed the exam in first class
1916: Appointed as Professor of Physics at Kolkata University
1921: Served as Reader in Physics Department of Dhaka University
1924: Wrote “Planck’s law and light quantum” paper and sent to Einstein
1924–1926: Visited Europe where he worked with scientists such as Curie, Pauli, Heisenberg and Planck
1926-1945: Served as Professor of Physics at Dhaka University
1956–1958: Chancellor of Visva-Bharati University in Santiniketan
1958: Fellow of Royal Society and appointed as National Professor
1974: He died in Kolkata on 4 February 1974
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